But is this a robust finding? The two studies on stereotype threat and chess have relatively small sample sizes.

More generally, doubts have been raised about the reliability of the stereotype threat phenomenon. Mixed results have been reported in larger trials, and some people - such as Flore & Wicherts (2015) - report that the literature is affected by publication bias. If only positive findings get published, stereotype threat may be far less reliable or general than it would appear from the literature.

Tom Stafford, Debating Sex Differences in Cognition, 2017/18. Theme credit: Matt Webb